Presidential Election in India and Institution:
The most prestigious office in India's democratic and constitutional system is that of the President. But, in the last few days, the way politics is happening regarding the presidential election, the dignity of this post has been reduced. The President does not have any specific ideology of his own, according to the time and circumstances, whatever is in the interest of the country, that becomes his ideology and principles.
Some words for the country's politics and politicians are very sensitive and popular in terms of political gains and losses, such as Dalit, Cow, Hindu, Secular, Minority etc. There is a lot of politics by tossing these words. The dignity of the office of the President can be saved only when we can stop it from being politicised. Before seeing how the dignity of this office is being damaged, let's talk about how the President is elected?
How is the President elected?
The method of election of the President in India is not like that of America. It is believed that the constitution makers of India, after studying the election systems of different countries, included many important provisions in it.
In fact, while the five-year term of President Pranab Mukherjee ends on July 24, 2017, the term of Vice President Hamid Ansari is set to end on August 10, 2017.
While the Vice-President is elected by the elected members of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha, the President is elected by the Electoral College, which consists of elected members of the Lok Sabha, the Rajya Sabha and the Legislative Assemblies of different states and union territories.
Its members have proportionate representation in the Electoral College. Here his single vote is transferred, but his second choice is also counted. This process is called Single Vote Transferable System or Single Transferable Vote System.
What is Single Transferable Vote System
The President is elected by an electoral college, also known as the Electoral College. It is mentioned in Article 54 of the Constitution. That is, the people do not directly elect their President, but the representatives elected by him. Since the people do not choose the President directly, it is called indirect election.
The elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of all the States and the Legislative Assemblies of the Union Territories and the elected members of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha participate in the election of the President of India. It may be noted that the members nominated by the President cannot vote in the Presidential election.
There is also an important fact that the members of the Legislative Council cannot exercise their vote in the presidential election. It should be noted that Legislative Councils exist in 9 states in India, but the President is elected by the representatives elected by the people.
Voting takes place in a special way in the election of the President in India. This is called Single Transferable Vote System. Single vote means the voter casts only one vote, but he votes for many candidates on the basis of his preference. That is, he tells on the ballot paper who is his first choice and who is the second, third.
If the winner is not decided by the first choice votes, the voter's second choice is transferred to the candidate's account as a new single vote. That's why it is called Single Transferable Vote.
It is noteworthy that the prominence of the votes of the MPs and MLAs who cast their votes is also different. It is also known as 'Wattez'. The 'weightage' of the votes of the MLAs of two states is also different. This 'weightage' is decided on the basis of the population of the state and the way this 'weightage' is decided is called proportional representation system.
With the coming into force of the Constitution on 26 January 1950, the country began a new journey as a 'Sovereign Democratic Republic'. By definition, republic means that the head of the nation will be elected, who is called the President.
Some of the powers of the President are as follows; Article 53: The executive power of the Union shall be vested in the President. He shall use it himself or through officers subordinate to him in accordance with the Constitution. It also has its limitations;
1. It is the executive power of the Union (not that of the States), which is vested in it.
2. Those powers can be exercised only according to the constitution.
3. The exercise of power in the capacity of Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces should be in accordance with law.
Under the power of pardon granted by Article 72, the President can pardon, suspend, commute and remit the punishment of any person convicted of an offence. He has the right to decide on the punishment of the criminal who has been sentenced to death.
Based on the powers conferred by Article 80, the President can nominate 12 persons to the Rajya Sabha having special knowledge or practical experience in literature, science, art and social service.
Under Article 352, the President can declare emergency in the event of war or external aggression or armed rebellion.
Under Article 356, in case of failure of the constitutional machinery of a state by the President, President's rule can be imposed on the basis of the report of the Governor.
At the same time, under Article 360, the President has the right to declare financial emergency in case of financial crisis in India or any part of its territory.
The President also discharges many other important powers, which he is not bound to do under Article 74. He can 'stop' a bill passed by both the Houses of Parliament before giving his assent. He can re-send any bill (except Money Bill) to the House for reconsideration.
According to Article 75, 'The Prime Minister shall be appointed by the President. When no party or coalition gets a clear majority in the election, the President invites the people to form the government using his discretion. His role is crucial in such occasions.
question of presidency
The power and the opposition should have decided the presidential candidate by consensus, but this initiative could not be taken. The person who sits on the chair of His Majesty is the head of state of the Republic of India and the sovereign nation. He is respected and protected in the constitutional system as much as other persons of this tradition have been.
Today, the politics that is being seen from both the sides regarding the Dalit candidate has hurt the dignity of this post. Political parties should understand that the mere addition of the word Dalit will not increase the dignity of this post, nor will there be any change in the constitutional rights of the President, nor will the President get unlimited powers.
If a person who belongs to the oppressed and exploited society for decades, occupies a constitutional post, then a wave of hope runs in that society and their faith in democracy is strengthened, but the problem here is that both the sides Dalit candidates have come in and the whole matter is being politicised.
There is no doubt that there should be social upliftment of the dalit backwards and the people of the lowest rung of the society and they should get equal respect in the society. There should be economic and social development of such people, but the garland of caste, religion, language and sect should not be chanted in politics.
Actually, in the Indian polity, the privileges that the Parliament has, it is not the President. His Excellency will not be able to make any separate law for Dalits.
In the Constitution of the Republic of India, all citizens have the right to equality and equality, whether they are Dalits or Brahmins, Hindus, Sikhs, Christians, Muslims, all have this right.
Our constitution does not talk of any discrimination on the basis of caste, religion, language. Then to talk about the word Dalit for a prestigious post like His Excellency, would be said to destroy the dignity of this post.