Vehicular emissions in India

Why in discussion?

of cars in India by 2030 Annual sales expected to increase from current 3.5 million to around 10.5 million Which is three times more, which will increase vehicular emissions.

  • India for vehicle registration by the year 2019 Highest Compound Annual Growth Rate (10%) with fifth largest global car maker Is.

key points:

  • Vehicle Emissions in India:
    • in urban areas air pollution One of the main reasons for this is vehicular emissions.
    • Vehicular emissions generally exceed respiratory levels of air quality Particulate Matter (PM) 2.5 of 20-30% contributes.
      • PM2.5 refers to particles that are less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (up to 100 times thinner than a human hair) and are suspended for a long time.
    • According to studies, vehicles emit about 290 gigagrams (Gg) of PM2.5 every year.
    • Also in India the total Around 8% of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Transport Sector and in Delhi it is more than 30%.
  • Vehicle Emissions (World):
    • The transport sector accounts for one-fourth of total emissions, of which road transport is responsible for three-fourths (15% of total global CO2 emissions).
    •  The largest share of this is passenger vehicles, which emit about 45% CO2.
    • If this situation continues, the annual GHG emissions in the year 2050 will be 90% more than in the year 2020.
  • Issues related to India towards reducing emissions:
    • Changes in fuel quality in India with steps taken towards exhaust treatment systems of internal combustion engines (ICE), electrification of vehicle segments and hydrogen powered vehicles vehicle technology boom is changing from
    • But ICE vehicles are expected to have a substantial share by the year 2040.
    • not only for Emission standards need to be tightened but in the world Amendment in technical standards for testing vehicles to reduce emissions is also required.
  • Method of emission test:
    • Most countries have developed regulations for testing vehicles during the manufacturing phase and in use.
    • Vehicle certification procedures include engine performance testing and emissions compliance on an 'Engine Chassis Dynamometer' in the laboratory.
    • The 'drive cycle' (a series of continuous data points of speed and time that approximates the driving pattern in terms of acceleration, deceleration and idling) is then used to obtain acceptable test results.
      • Through this, it helps to know the actual driving status of the vehicles, which also gives an idea about the emissions from them.
  • Test Methods Designed by India:
    • The 'Indian Drive Cycle' (IDC) was the first 'driving cycle' designed for vehicle testing and certification in India based on extensive road trials.
      • The 'Indian Drive Cycle' was a short cycle, consisting of six driving modes of 108 seconds each (reflecting a pattern of acceleration, deceleration and idling).
    • But the IDC did not cover all the complex driving conditions that are commonly seen on Indian roads.
    • This was followed by the adoption of the Modified Indian Drive Cycle (MIDC) as an improvement to the IDC, which incorporates the same standards as the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC).
      • The wider driving modes are covered under MIDC and it is much better than IDC.
      • Also MIDC covers the various driving conditions seen in the practical world much better.
    • However, despite improvements, MIDC still cannot adequately represent vehicular emissions during on-road conditions due to variations in traffic density, land use patterns, road infrastructure and poor traffic management.
    • It has therefore become necessary to adopt the 'Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicle Test Procedure' (WLTP), which is a global standard for determining the level of pollutants from internal combustion engines and hybrid cars.
  • Measurement of emissions in the practical world:
    • 'Actual Driving Emissions' (RDE) Regarding tests, the European Commission, the United States and China suggest that 'driving cycles' and laboratory tests do not reflect potential emissions during actual driving conditions, as actual conditions are more complex than laboratory driving tests.
      • The 'Actual Driving Emissions' (RDE) is an independent test to eliminate the limitations of the 'Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicle Test Procedure' and equivalent laboratory tests under which a car is assumed to encounter a variety of conditions on public roads .
    • The International Center for Automotive Technology in India is currently developing RDE processes, which are expected to be implemented in 2023.
      • The RDE cycle should be responsive to the conditions prevailing in the country, such as low and high altitude, year-round temperature, additional vehicle payload, driving, urban and rural roads and highways.

Initiatives to reduce emissions in India:

  • Change in emission norms from Bharat Stage-IV (BS-IV) to Bharat Stage-VI (BS-VI):
    • Bharat Phase (BS) emission standards are set by the government to regulate the production of air pollutants from internal combustion engines and spark-ignition engine equipment, including motor vehicles.
    • The central government has mandated that vehicle manufacturers will have to manufacture, sell and register only BS-VI vehicles with effect from 1 April 2020.
  • Roadmap for Ethanol Blending in India by 2025:
    • The roadmap proposes a gradual use of ethanol-blended fuels to supply E10 fuel by April 2022 and a phased use of E20 from April 2023 to April 2025.
  • Rapid Adoption and Manufacturing of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (FAME) Scheme:
    • The objective of FAME India scheme is to encourage all vehicle segments.
    • Two phases of planning:
      • Phase I: Started in the year 2015 and completed on 31st March, 2019
      • Phase II: Starting from April, 2019 to be completed by March 31, 2024.
  • National Hydrogen Energy Mission:
    • It aims to cut carbon emissions and increase the use of renewable sources of energy, while aligning India's efforts with global best practices in technology, policy and regulation.